DEVELOPMENT: 1 Month to 5 Years

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Pediatrician Perrysburg Ohio

 
Age Movement/Physical Development Cognitive (learning/thinking) Language/Communication Social/Emotional
 

1 month

Brings hands within range of eyes and mouth

Moves head from side to side while lying on tummy

Keeps hands in tight fist

Will stare at an object placed in front of the face, especially something brightly colored

Eyes wander and occasionally cross

May turn toward familiar sounds and voices

Startles at loud noises      

 

Recognizes parent’s voice

Becomes alert when hearing a pleasant sound, like music

 

2 months

Holds head up when on tummy

Moves both arms and both legs

Opens hands briefly

Watches you as you move

Looks at a toy for several seconds

 

Makes sounds other than crying

Reacts to loud sounds

Calms down when spoken to or picked up

Looks at your face

Seems happy to see you when you walk up to her/him

Smiles when you talk or smile at her/him

 

4 months

Holds head steady without support when you are holding her/him

Holds a toy when you put it in his/her hand

Uses her/his arm to swing at toys

Brings hands to mouth

Pushes up onto elbows/forearms when on tummy

If hungry, opens mouth when she/he sees breast or bottle

Looks at his/her hands with interest

Makes sounds like “oooo”, “aahh” (cooing)

Makes sounds back when you talk to him/her

Turns head towards the sound of your voice

Smiles on his/her own to get your attention

Chuckles (not yet a full laugh) when you try to make her/him laugh

Looks at you, moves, or makes sounds to get or keep your attention

 

6 months

Rolls from tummy to back

Pushes up with straight arms when on tummy

Leans on hands to support himself/herself when sitting

Puts things in her/his mouth to explore them

Reaches to grab a toy he/she wants

Closes lips to show she/he doesn’t want more food

Takes turns making sounds with you

Blows “raspberries” (sticks tongue out and blows)

Makes squealing noises

Knows familiar people

Likes to look at him/herself in a mirror

Laughs

 

9 months

Gets to a sitting position by her/himself

Moves things from one hand to her/his other hand

Uses fingers to “rake” food towards him/herself

Sits without support

Looks for objects when dropped out of sight (like a spoon or toy)

Bangs two things together

Makes different sounds like “mamamama” and “babababa”

Lifts arms up to be picked up

 

Is shy, clingy, or fearful around strangers

Shows several facial expressions, like happy, sad, angry, and surprised

Looks when you call her/his name

Reacts when you leave (looks, reaches for you, or cries)

Smiles or laughs when you play peek-a-boo

 

12 months

Pulls up to stand

Walks holding on to furniture

Drinks from a cup without a lid, as you hold it

Picks things up between thumb and pointer finger, like small bits of food

Puts something in a container, like a block in a cup

Looks for things he/she sees you hide, like a toy under a blanket

Waves “bye-bye”

Calls a parent “mama” or “dada” or another special name

Understands “no” (pauses briefly or stops when you say it)

Plays games with you, like pat-a-cake
 

15 months

Takes a few steps on his own

Uses fingers to feed self some food

Tries to use things the right way, like a phone, cup, or book

Stacks at least two small objects, like blocks

Tries to say one or two words besides “mama” or “dada,” like “ba” for ball or “da” for dog

Looks at a familiar object when you name it

Follows directions given with both a gesture and words. For example, he gives you a toy when you hold out your hand and say, “Give me the toy.”

Points to ask for something or to get help

Copies other children while playing, like taking toys out of a container when another child does

Shows you an object she likes

Claps when excited

Hugs stuffed doll or other toy

Shows you affection (hugs, cuddles, or kisses you)

 

Age Movement/Physical Development Cognitive (learning/thinking) Language/Communication Social/Emotional
 

18 months

Walks without holding on to anyone or anything

Scribbles

Drinks from a cup without a lid and may spill sometimes

Feeds self with fingers

Tries to use a spoon

Climbs on and off a couch or chair without help

Copies you doing chores, like sweeping with a broom

Plays with toys in a simple way, like pushing a toy car

Tries to say three or more words besides “mama” or “dada”

Follows one step directions without any gestures, like giving you the toy when you say, “Give it to me.”

Moves away from you, but looks to make sure you are close by

Points to show you something interesting

Puts hands out for you to wash them

Looks at a few pages in a book with you

Helps you dress him/her by pushing arm through sleeve or lifting up foot

 

2 years

Kicks a ball

Runs

Walks (not climbs) up a few stairs with or without help

Eats with a spoon

Holds something in one hand while using the other hand; for example, holding a container and taking the lid off

Tries to use switches, knobs, or buttons on a toy

Plays with more than one toy at the same time, like putting toy food on a toy plate

Points to things in a book when you ask, like “Where is the bear?”

Says at least two words together, like “More milk.”

Points to at least two body parts when you ask him to show you

Uses more gestures than just waving and pointing, like blowing a kiss or nodding yes

Notices when others are hurt or upset, like pausing or looking sad when someone is crying

Looks at your face to see how to react in a new situation

2 ½ years Uses hands to twist things, like turning doorknobs or unscrewing lids

Takes some clothes off by him/herself, like loose pants or an open jacket

Jumps off the ground with both feet

Turns book pages, one at a time, when you read to her/him

Uses things to pretend, like feeding a block to a doll as if it were food

Shows simple problem-solving skills, like standing on a small stool to reach something

Follows two-step instructions like “Put the toy down and close the door.”

Shows he knows at least one color, like pointing to a red crayon when you ask, “Which one is red?”

Says about 50 words

Says two or more words together, with one action word, like “Doggie run”

Names things in a book when you point and ask, “What is this?”

Says words like “I,” “me,” or “we”

Plays next to other children and sometimes play with them

Shows you what she can do by saying, “Look at me!”

Follows simple routine when told, like helping to pick up toys when you say, “It’s clean-up time.”

 

3 years

Strings items together, like large beads or macaroni

Puts on some clothes by him/herself, like loose pants or a jacket

Uses a fork

Draws a circle, when you show him/her how

Avoids touching hot objects, like a stove, when you warn her/him

Talks with you in conversation using at least two back-and-forth exchanges

Asks “who,” “what,” “where,” or “why” questions, like “Where is mommy/daddy?”

Says what action is happening in a picture or book when asked, like “running,” “eating,” or “playing”

Says first name, when asked

Talks well enough for others to understand, most of the time

Calms down within 10 minutes after you leave her/him, like at a childcare drop off

Notices other children and joins them to play

 

 

4 years

Catches a large ball most of the time

Serves him/herself food or pours water, with adult supervision

Unbuttons some buttons

Holds crayon or pencil between fingers and thumb (not a fist)

Names a few colors of items

Tells what comes next in a well-known story

Draws a person with three or more body parts

Says sentences with four or more words

Says some words from a song, story, or nursery rhyme

Talks about at least one thing that happened during his day, like “I played soccer.”

Answers simple questions like “What is a coat for?” or “What is a crayon for?”

Pretends to be something else during play (teacher, superhero, dog)

Asks to go play with children if none are around, like “Can I play with Alex?”

Comforts others who are hurt or sad, like hugging a crying friend

Avoids danger, like not jumping from tall heights at the playground

Likes to be a “helper”

Changes behavior based on where she is (place of worship, library, playground)

Age Movement/Physical Development Cognitive (learning/thinking) Language/Communication Social/Emotional
 

5 years

Buttons some buttons

Hops on one foot

Counts to 10

Names some numbers between 1 and 5 when you point to them

Uses words about time, like “yesterday,” “tomorrow,” “morning,” or “night”

Pays attention for 5 to 10 minutes during activities. For example, during story time or making arts and crafts (screen time does not count)

Writes some letter in her/his name

Names some letters when you point to them

Tells a story she/he heard or made up with at least two events. For example, a cat stuck in a tree and a firefighter saved it

Answers simple questions about a book or story after you read or tell it to him

Keeps a conversation going with more than three back-and-forth exchanges

Uses or recognizes simple rhymes (bat-cat, ball-tall)

Follows rules or takes turns when playing games with other children

Sings, dances, or acts for you

Does simple chores at home, like matching socks or clearing the table after eating

 

 

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